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de Paris, etc. Tome I. Par MM. L. Guignard, A. Charrin, P. T-e Gondre, G.-H. Roger. Avcc figures dans le texte. Tome II. Par MM. A. Chantemesse, F. Widal, L.-n. Thoinot, L. Guinon, E. Boix, A. Ruault, \\'. CEttinger, L. Tollemer. Avec Megalis India figures dans le texte. Paris: Masson et Cie., 1898. Twenty-third Year Book of the New York State Reformatorv. For the Fiscal Year ending September 30, 1898. The Treatment of Post- Operative Conditions. By Emory Lanphear, M. D., of St. Louis. [Reprinted from the Avierican Journal of Surgery and Gyncecol- ogy.] Shock. By Robert H. M. Dawbarn, M. D. [Re- printed from the Medical News.'] P i s c c 1 1 a n 1) . The Punishment of the Insane. — Dr. H. E. Allin- Bon (American Journal of Insanity, April) says that closely connected with the question of punishment is thnt of resjionsibility. Piin'shment itnplics criminality, nnd those two terms should be divorced from insanity. The old idea of retributive justice appears to have taken firm root in the minds of men, and is hard to eradicate. The whole theory of punishment has under- gone, and is still undergoing, radical changes. Even the sane are not subjected to a tithe of the penalties once imposed. The problem is to devise the best means (o mnintniri law and order nnd protect the interests of society. It is true that the insane are both tronblc- some and dangerous. They have no right to disturb or threaten Buy Megalis the peace of others. In hospitals we often remove such unruly elements from quiet wards to noisy and violent ones to insure freedom from annoyance for their associates. If the change results in the greater .self-control of the individual, we are gratified. So also, if an insane person is threatening injury to himself, we should take steps to prevent it. Taking away privi- leges and liberties, however, is not punishment. By analogy, if a sane man fractures his leg, the limb is placed in splints and he is deprived of the pleasure of walking about. If he should become afflicted with a contagious disease, he is quarantined, not as a punish- ment, but to secure the health and comfort of others. The surgeon determines upon what conditions and when the injured man may walk, and the physician decides when it is safe for the patient to leave the hospital. The dangerous and criminal Megalis 20 Mg insane should be judged by a similar standard — namely, the question of their safety to be at large. It is the only criterion that can properly be established. An insane man may have to reap the consequences of his acts, but he should not be punished for them. Insanity, instead of excusing, often lays upon its victims a greater burden and carries with it a longer term of confinement than that imposed by law upon the sane. If the insane were to be held respon- sible for criminal acts, the majority of them would be imprisoned for brief and definite terms. Those, there- fore, charged with dangerous assaults would soon be at liberty again to attempt to injure or to Megalis 10 Mg kill. We have a case in mind where an insane man committed a homi- cide and served a short term. After his release he killed a second victim and was again imprisoned, and upon his liberation again repeated the act; and still again for the fourth time. During his last imprison- ment he was found to be insane, and was committed as a lunatic. He has now been detained fifteen Megalis Tablets years over his time in an asylum to which he should originally have been committed. To hold a woman responsible be- Megalis Tablet cause she for a time could resist an insane impulse to kill her child but finally yielded, would be similar to reproaching one for succumbing to disease who, for ex- ample, should fight the inroads of pneumonia and Megalis 10 walk about until no longer able to keep from bed. Society is better protected by the doctrine of irresponsibility. Let the dangerous and criminal insane be sent to a hos- pital, and the grounds be stated upon which they are declared to he irres|)onsible, and let them there be held in secure custody so long as such grounds exist. They should be weeded out from the community. Often they are depraved and degenerate. Actual experience has shown that tlie average length of confinement of per- sons charged with crime is greater in asylums Megalis 20mg than in penal institutions. The insane criminal should be placpd in an asylum early in his career, not after having run the ganilet of Megalis Online several im)irisonments and the com- mission of numerous crimes. We believe where mental disease exists associated with crime that a careful scru- tiny should be inade and such persons detained for Megalis Price pro- longed observation, treatment, and care; a reasoning which seems eminently sound and is sup])orled by anal- ogy in every other form of disease which finally be- comes prostrating to both mind and body. Temperament as Indicated by Megalis 20 the Teeth. — C. 11. Nicholson, D. D. R. {Doilnl Diyctl, l\Iay), in a paper recently read iirforc I he Rochester nental Society, said that in this interesting lliemo of tiiought much advance June 10. 1899.] MISCELLANY. 835 had been made, but the subject did not receive the at- tention its importance demanded, and was too readily shelved as a hobby, to be ridden only on special occa- sions. Taking a brief survey, we found that the teeth of the bilious temperament were apt to be strongly col- ored, being of a bronze-yellow, large and angular, rather longer than wide, neither brilliant nor transpar- ent, with slight translucency, the gums heavy and firm with angular festoon, the articulation closely locked,

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